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Home > Blog > All You Need to Know about a CBC Test: Definition, Requirement, and Procedure

All You Need to Know about a CBC Test: Definition, Requirement, and Procedure

All You Need to Know about a CBC Test: Definition, Requirement, and Procedure

Max Lab

Nov 09, 2022

https://www.maxlab.co.in/symptoms/fatigueIn today’s times, several blood tests are available at renowned diagnostic centres for detecting, as well as monitoring diseases. There are full body health checkup that provide a comprehensive analysis of an individual’s bodily functions. One of the most common blood tests present in health packages is a complete blood count or CBC test. Read on to know more about this test, its requirement, and the types of blood disorders and diseases that cause mild-to-severe infections, deficiencies, and serious conditions: 

What is a CBC Test?

A complete blood count (CBC) test is a diagnostic procedure that provides detailed information about the red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), platelets, haemoglobin, and hematocrit. If any type of blood infection is present, a CBC test helps detect its severity. Other blood diseases that can be detected with a CBC test include anaemia and leukaemia. A reputed pathology lab in Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, and other cities provides a complete blood count test at a reasonable price. It is recommended to look for an accredited diagnostic centre so that test reports are genuine and accurate.

Why is CBC Test Required?

Most medical practitioners prescribe a complete blood count test to analyse the overall health of an individual. This is primarily because the levels of RBCs, WBCs, haemoglobin, etc., determine whether a person has an infection or disease in the blood. It is important to investigate the components of the blood if there are symptoms of an infection. These include fatigue, inflammation, high fever, bleeding, and weakness. Thus, a CBC test is prescribed to detect any infection present in the bloodstream that requires immediate treatment. Besides, the purpose of a blood test extends to monitoring pre-existing blood-related diseases. These medical conditions affect one or more components of the blood. Their progression and severity can be kept in check with this diagnostic test effectively. Here is a list of blood-related diseases and disorders that a complete blood count test can detect, monitor, and track:

List of blood diseases affecting the red blood cells

  • Iron-deficiency Anaemia: This is a condition in which there is an insufficient amount of iron present in the blood due to heavy menstruation, GI tract issues or cancer. 
  • Vitamin-deficiency Anaemia: The lack of vitamin B12 and folate in the blood can cause vitamin-deficiency anaemia. This is mainly due to the minimal intake of these vitamin-rich foods in the diet. 
  • Pregnancy Anaemia: Some women experience this type of anaemia when the need for red blood cells is high during gestation. 
  • Non-inherited haemolytic Anaemia: Injuries or certain medications can damage and destroy red blood cells leading to non-inherited or acquired haemolytic anaemia in an individual. 
  • Inherited haemolytic Anaemia: This type of anaemia is passed on by parents. It also causes an abnormal loss of red blood cells in the bloodstream. 
  • Aplastic Anaemia: Limited or no production of red blood cells in the bone marrow results in aplastic anaemia. 

List of blood diseases affecting the white blood cells 

  • Lymphoma: This is a type of cancer affecting the white blood cells. Virus-killing and immunity-building WBCs known as lymphocytes change and multiply rapidly in the body due to Hodgkin’s or non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Leukaemia: Another type of blood cancer that affects the white blood cells is leukaemia. It causes abnormal production of WBCs in the bone marrow that restricts RBCs and platelets to survive in the bloodstream. 
  • Myeloma: Similar to leukaemia, myeloma is a blood cancer that causes an over-production of plasma in the bone marrow that can affect the functionality of other blood components. 

List of blood diseases affecting the platelets 

  • Haemophilia: This is a genetic blood disorder that restricts blood clotting, both internally and externally, in an individual. People who have haemophilia can have medical emergencies due to excessive bleeding. 
  • Von Willebrand disease: It is caused by a lack of von Willebrand factor (VWF) that allows platelets to stick together and form clots.

What is the Procedure for a CBC Test? 

A CBC test requires a venepuncture in which a technician draws blood from the upper arm of an individual. After sample collection is complete, it is sent to a pathology lab where all components are tested. Since there are no preparations required for a CBC test, it can be booked at any time. A CBC test report is generally provided within a few hours of sample collection from a trusted diagnostic centre. Based on the results, proper treatment should be taken from an experienced doctor. People who are already getting treatment for serious infections or blood-related disorders are recommended to book at-home sample collection so that they do not have to exert.  

A complete blood count test is not a conclusive test for detecting blood-borne infections and diseases on its own. Therefore, it is suggested to get further screening done under the guidance of a medical practitioner. 

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