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Home > Blog > Meconium Aspiration Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

Meconium Aspiration Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

Meconium Aspiration Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

Max Lab

Nov 13, 2022

Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a serious condition that can occur when a baby inhales meconium, a newborn's first stool. Meconium is thick, sticky, and dark green. It is made up of everything the baby has ingested in utero, including amniotic fluid, skin cells, hair, mucus, and other secretions. Inhaling meconium can cause MAS, which can lead to respiratory distress and even death. The severity of MAS depends on how much meconium was inhaled and how soon after birth it occurred. Meconium aspiration syndrome is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. This article will discuss the causes, symptoms, and diagnosis of MAS.

What is Meconium Aspiration Syndrome?

Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a serious lung condition that can occur when a newborn inhales meconium, the earliest stool of an infant. Meconium is thick and sticky, and can block the airways and cause breathing problems. MAS can also lead to pneumonia and other respiratory infections.

MAS is more common in babies who are born before 37 weeks gestation or who have a birth weight less than 5 pounds 8 ounces. Other risk factors include:

  • Maternal diabetes
  • Maternal obesity
  • Prolonged labor
  • use of vacuum or forceps during childbirth
  • Meconium-stained amniotic fluid

What Causes Meconium Aspiration Syndrome?

The exact cause of Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is unknown, but it is believed to be associated with fetal distress during labor. Factors that may contribute to fetal distress include:

  • Maternal infection
  • Placental abruption
  • Umbilical cord compression
  • Excessive maternal blood loss
  • Prolonged labor

Symptoms of MAS vary depending on the severity of the condition. In mild cases, infants may only experience respiratory distress immediately after birth which resolves quickly with supportive care. In more severe cases, infants may suffer from pneumonia, lung collapse, or respiratory failure and require hospitalization. Diagnosis of MAS is made based on clinical signs and symptoms as well as radiographic findings on chest X-ray or computed tomography scan.

What are the Symptoms of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS)?

The symptoms of Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) will depend on how severe the aspiration is. For mild aspirates, symptoms may be limited to

  • tachypnea, or fast breathing
  • respiratory distress
  • cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin)
  • decreased oxygen saturation, apnea (a pause in breathing)
  • bradycardia (a slow heart rate)
  • hypotension (low blood pressure)

In the most severe cases, MAS can lead to pulmonary hypertension and cardiac failure.

How is Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS) Diagnosed?

MAS is typically diagnosed after a baby is born. If the baby has respiratory distress and meconium-stained amniotic fluid, a doctor will likely suspect MAS. A chest x-ray may be done to check for meconium in the lungs. In some cases, a bronchoscopy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

How is Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS) Treated?

Fortunately, there are treatments available for MAS. The first step is to suction the meconium out of the lungs as quickly as possible. This can be done with a special suction device or by intubating the baby and suctioning the meconium through the tube. Sometimes, doctors will also insert a small tube into the baby's chest to help drain any remaining meconium from the lungs.

After the meconium has been removed, babies with MAS will need supportive care to help them breathe. This may include supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, and/or medicine to treat any underlying infection. With treatment, most babies with MAS will recover completely.

What complications of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS)?

There are several potential complications associated with MAS, including:

  • Infection: The meconium-stained amniotic fluid can provide a breeding ground for bacteria, increasing the risk of infection for the baby.
  • Lung damage: The inhaled meconium can irritate and damage the delicate tissues of the lungs, leading to difficulties breathing and other respiratory problems.
  • Intestinal damage: Inhaled meconium can also damage the intestines, leading to meconium peritonitis (inflammation of the lining of the abdomen) or meconium ileus (blockage of the intestines).
  • Cerebral palsy: In some cases, MAS can cause cerebral palsy, a condition that affects movement and muscle coordination.

How can Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS) be Prevented?

While there is no guaranteed way to prevent MAS, there are some measures that can be taken to reduce the risk:

  • Avoiding smoking during pregnancy
  • Taking steps to ensure a healthy pregnancy, including regular prenatal care
  • maintaining good health and consuming wholesome meals
  • Avoiding drugs and alcohol during pregnancy
  • Having a skilled healthcare provider present during delivery

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