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Home > Disease > Hashimoto’s Disease

Hashimoto’s Disease

Hashimoto’s Disease

Hashimoto’s Disease

Hashimoto’s Disease is a condition in which the thyroid gland is affected, leading to hypothyroidism, a hormone imbalance that can suppress the body and cause symptoms like fatigue, depression, weight gain, and swollen lymph nodes. One of the main differences between Hashimoto’s and other forms of hypothyroidism is that it usually affects middle-aged women more than men.

What is Hashimoto's Disease?

An autoimmune condition that affects the thyroid gland is called Hashimoto's disease. The thyroid is a tiny gland in the front of the neck that resembles a butterfly. It produces hormones that regulate metabolism, body temperature, and heart rate.

In Hashimoto's disease, the body's immune system attacks the thyroid gland. This leads to inflammation of the thyroid and decreases in hormone production. The most frequent cause of hypothyroidism in the US is Hashimoto's disease.

Symptoms of Hashimoto's disease can vary from person to person, and may include fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, joint and muscle pain, constipation, dry skin, brittle hair, depression, and irregular menstrual cycles.

If left untreated, Hashimoto's disease can lead to serious complications such as goiter (enlargement of the thyroid gland), myxedema (a condition characterized by low levels of thyroid hormones and fluid retention), heart failure, and even death.

Treatment for Hashimoto's disease typically involves taking synthetic Thyroid hormone replacement pills daily. In some cases, additional treatments such as iodine supplements or anti-inflammatory drugs may be necessary.

What causes it?

There are a few different schools of thought on what causes Hashimoto’s disease. The most common theory is that it is an autoimmune disorder, caused when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland. This can be due to a number of factors, including genetics, stress, and other autoimmune disorders.

Another theory is that Hashimoto’s is caused by a viral infection. This is supported by the fact that the disease often occurs after a viral illness, and that people with Hashimoto’s are more likely to have antibodies against viruses than those without the disease.

Whatever the cause, it is clear that Hashimoto’s disease results in an underactive thyroid gland, which leads to a variety of symptoms. If you think you may have Hashimoto’s disease, speak to your doctor for a diagnosis and treatment plan.

How can I prevent it?

The best way to prevent Hashimoto’s disease is to avoid the triggers that can cause it. Among the most frequent triggers are:

• Gluten – Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye and barley. It can trigger an immune response in people with Hashimoto’s disease, causing inflammation and damage to the thyroid gland.

• Soy – Soy contains goitrogens, which are substances that can interfere with thyroid hormone production.

• Dairy – Dairy products can also contain goitrogens, as well as casomorphins which can promote inflammation.

• Stress – Stress can trigger or worsen Hashimoto’s disease by causing the release of stress hormones that can damage the thyroid gland.

If you have Hashimoto’s disease, it’s important to work with your doctor to develop a treatment plan that includes avoiding triggers and managing your symptoms.

Signs and Symptoms

There are a number of signs and symptoms associated with Hashimoto’s disease, some of which may not be immediately apparent. Many people with the condition will experience fatigue, weight gain, and muscle aches and pains. Other common symptoms include dry skin, thinning hair, cold intolerance, and constipation.

Some people with Hashimoto’s disease may also experience depression, anxiety, or difficulty concentrating. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to speak to your doctor as soon as possible so that they can rule out other potential causes and begin developing a treatment plan.

Diagnosis

There is no one test to diagnose Hashimoto’s disease. The diagnosis is based on a combination of symptoms, physical findings, and blood tests.

The most common symptom of Hashimoto’s disease is an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter). Other symptoms may include fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, dry skin, muscle cramps, and joint pain.

Blood tests can be used to measure levels of thyroid hormones and antibodies. A high level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and low level of thyroid hormone are indicative of Hashimoto’s disease. A positive test for anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO), which are present in most people with Hashimoto’s disease, confirm the diagnosis.

Imaging studies such as ultrasound or MRI may be used to evaluate the size of the thyroid gland. A biopsy of the thyroid is not usually necessary to make the diagnosis but may be done to rule out other causes of goiter or abnormal blood test results.

Treatment (Medication; Surgery)

Hashimoto's disease has no known cure, but treatment can help control the symptoms. Treatment options include medication and surgery.

Medication is the most common form of treatment for Hashimoto’s disease. The goal of medication is to lower the levels of thyroid hormones in the body. This can be done with synthetic thyroid hormone replacement therapy or by taking drugs that block the production of thyroid hormones.

Surgery is an option for people who do not respond to medication or who have very high levels of thyroid hormones in their body. Surgery involves removing part or all of the thyroid gland.

Complications

There are a few potential complications that can arise from Hashimoto’s disease. If the thyroid gland becomes severely damaged, it can stop producing hormones altogether. This is called hypothyroidism, and can lead to fatigue, weight gain, constipation, dry skin, and more.

Hashimoto’s disease can also cause problems with other hormone-producing glands, like the adrenal glands or pituitary gland. This can lead to a number of different issues, including problems with blood pressure, fertility, and growth.

In rare cases, Hashimoto’s disease can cause inflammation of the brain or spinal cord. This is called autoimmune encephalitis or myelitis, and can be very serious. Symptoms include headache, confusion, paralysis, and even coma.

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